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OSS, Linux, BSD, Virtualization, other OSes

for Windows and MacOS see at the respective headings:



generic package search

  1. many package formats including .rpm and .deb
  2. more packages but just for rpm
  3. less known rpm search
  4. python: pypi, perl: cpan, nodejs: npmjs, Cocoapods (via Ruby)
  5. FlatHub, AppImages, (packages for snap), find docker containers
  6. F-Droid, UptoDown, AppImageHub, UD: freely download Android, MacOS, Windows packages, no registration required

distributions, distribution specific offers & package search, downloading

  1. Debian (community distro, i.e. free & open): package search, releases, download: stable (https), testing (https), firmware (https), Atterer´s download tool (+src/win+https),
  2. Mageia (community distro), package search
  3. openSUSE (sponsored by Novell): package search, oS Build Service
  4. more distros: Fedora (sponsored by RedHat), Linux Mint (community), (non-community, no release media)
  5. Ubuntu (from Canonical), Launchpad
  6. You want to self-compile your own distro: Gentoo (community), Linux From Scratch
  7. Slackware (non community) also suitable for very old PCs: Slackware 9 runs on i386, Slackware 11 on i486
  8. immutable Linux: Fedora Silverblue, Debian Endless OS, openSUSE MicroOS
  9. System Rescue CD, Tom´s root boot: floppy that also boots on an i386 computer
  10. Security Distros🗝, not Linux, not OSS: Ultimate Boot CD

raw software search, git hoster

  1. LinuxLinks, Links2Linux
  4. /explore:,

popular Open Source Software (with Windows & MacOS availability)🖫 ← click it!


Linux forums & chat

  1.,,, StackXchg forums
  2. German forums:,,
  3. Mailing Lists: Debian mailing lists, program specific mailing lists: search yourself
  4. IRC: channel search, (OSS & Linux), (#qemu etc., #debian), IRC-howto; libera/list
  5. pasting code: privatebin, dpaste, curl-cmd, for nc & command line

Linux articles, resources & blogs, FSFE

  1. Linux Basics, Linux for Beginners (DigitalOcean), Linux intro & more
  2. tech info: LinuxGuruz, CentOS HowTos, ArchWiki: contents/search, Mageia, openSUSE, Debian Wiki+HwTs; de: Referenz/Handbuch, Ubuntu: manual; de: users
  3. news: Linuxoide, TecMint, UbuntuPit, LinuxAndUbuntu, TecAdmin, de: LinuxUndIch
  4. articles: Linux magazine, LM in German,, FS-magazine
  5. fr: Lea-Linux, linuxfr, TheGeekDiary (SELinux, Apparmore, iptables)
  6. howtos: OSTechnix, LinuxTechi, HowToForge, 2DayGeek, XModulo
  7. blog: LinuxUprising, LinuxConfig, NixCraft/CyberCity, TheGeekStuff
  8. books:, news about the Linux Kernel: LWN
  9. howto: compile the Linux kernel - Hunt for 4K (de) + UHD graphics
  10. Free Software Foundation Europe

Virtualization (Linux, Win, MacOS, BSD)

  1. Qemu: Virtualization, multiple OS, in Linux kernel; i.e. most easy to use for Linux (download)
  2. VirtualBox: GUI-Virtualization, multiple OS (download)
  3. VMware Workstation Player: restricted, you can not create own images (download)
  4. Microsoft Windows, Oracle Solaris: development environments for VirtualBox and more formats
  5. free VirtualBox Images: get an image without the need to install from scratch
  6. converting image files - quick guide
  7. drvtools (Linux) - boot a dual boot OS from same hard disk with Qemu (limits other parts to read only), burn sparse raw images on blue ray
  8. systemd-container (Linux)
  9. Xen Beginner´s Guide (wiki) (Linux)
  10. xchroot (Linux) - how to create a chroot environment, GUI programs incl. dekstop link out of chroot, GUI sessions out of chroot & more


  1. DNS (/etc/resolv.conf): lifewire list, opennic, opendns,, uncensoreddns (test a few times: dig @ | grep "Query time")
  2. DNS[SEC]/bind9 configuration: IANA Root Files (DNSSEC: put ". 86400 IN DNSKEY 257 3 8 AwEAAaz…" into /usr/share/dns/root.key, from Root Zone File)
  3. NTP (network time protocol) : intro & config, pool.ntp, (/etc/ntp.conf, systemctl status ntpd)
  4. linode: Firewalls, SELinux & more, netfilter howtos + FAQ: fitlering & NAT, linuxguruz networking

more Operating Systems

BSD Unix-variants (all open source like Linux!)

  1. FreeBSD (most widespread)
  2. OpenBSD (they contend for secure networking, authors of openssh)
  3. DragonFly BSD (you may try this for old seldom hardware, features like virtual kernels)
  4. NetBSD
BSD systems have a license that does not exclude commercial use: MacOS is built on top of BSD; BSDs also have chroot-jails, chroot as a security feature

Windows, MacOS, DOS & OS/2

  1. win→tux: Cygwin: Linux environment for Windows, CoLinux Linux under Windows, install WSL (Windows System on Linux),
  2. tux→win: Wine, WineTricks, PlayOnLinux: Windows on Linux (Debian: contrib)
  3. MacOS: Homebrew, MacPorts, Fink, needs gcc for OSX/MacOS, otherwise you need the proprietary Xcode (or: newest) monstrosity
    Mac-add-dev: RubyGems +other MacDevSetup, Cocoapods
  4. Ecomstation, Arca Noae: OS/2 for i586 (OS/2 also has a good DOS-Emulation)
  5. IBM OS/2: OS/2 Warp installation and update manual, works on i486, i386 and i286 computers, protected mode (80286 is 16bit protected mode)
  6. DOSBox-X: cross-platform DOS emulation, Win 3.x and Win 9x supported; more and better features compared to DOSBox.
  7. FreeDOS real mode, can address no more than 1MB RAM, still used for BIOS updates and legacy sw; you may try DOSBox-X instead of Qemu or VirtualBox-ing FreeDOS
Windows 3.1 was originally booted on top of DOS. Windows 95 & 98 are own OSes, running a DOS extender on real mode, Windows NT and XP the first protected mode 32bit OSes

alternative OSes

  1. Qubes OS, GNU Hurd, MenuetOS

Linux-Hardware 🛒

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